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Weight Loss Glossary, T-Z


See Vitamin B1.


See Vitamin E.

Trans Fat (Trans Fatty Acid)

A fat that is produced when polyunsaturated fat (oil) is turned into solid fat through a chemical process called hydrogenation.


An amount or quantity used as a standard of measurement. Examples are inch, degree, calorie, and hour.

Vitamin A (Retinol)

A fat-soluble vitamin essential for proper vision and healthy skin. Found in egg yolk, butter, and most yellow and orange fruits and vegetables, especially carrots.

Vitamin B1 (Thiamine)

A water-soluble vitamin, part of the vitamin B complex. The body needs it to break down carbohydrates, fat and protein. Vitamin B1 is also essential for proper functioning of nerve cells, heart and muscles. A deficiency of thiamine can cause weakness, fatigue, and nerve damage. Found in organ meats, whole grains, yeast, nuts, yoghurt and oysters.

Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)

A water-soluble vitamin, part of the vitamin B complex. It helps the body process amino acids and fats, make antibodies and red blood cells, and maintain good vision, hair, nails and skin. A deficiency of vitamin B2 may result in itching and burning eyes, digestive disturbances, sores in the mouth and on the lips, retarded growth, sluggishness, and trembling. It is found in dairy products, dark green leafy vegetables, whole grains and enriched bread and cereal.

Vitamin B3 (Niacin, Nicotinic Acid, Nicotinamide)

A water-soluble vitamin, part of the vitamin B complex. Is especially important for digestion and appetite, as well as tissue and nerve cells. Found in meats, milk, eggs, cereals, legumes, coffee, and tea.

Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic Acid)

A water-soluble vitamin, part of the vitamin B complex. Helps release energy from protein, carbohydrates, and fat, and utilize other vitamins. It improves the body's resistance to stress and helps in cell building. The main sources are meats and eggs.

Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine, Pyridoxal Phosphate, Pyridoxamine)

A water-soluble vitamin, part of the vitamin B complex. Vitamin B6 plays a role in the synthesis of antibodies by the immune system which are needed to fight many diseases. It also acts in the formation of red blood cells and helps maintain the proper balance of sodium and potassium which regulate body fluids. Good sources of vitamin B6 are meat, poultry, fish, whole grains, enriched bread and cereal, legumes, green leafy vegetables.

Vitamin B9 (Folic Acid, Folate, Folacin, Pteroylglutamic Acid)

A water-soluble vitamin, part of the vitamin B complex. It is essential for the synthesis of DNA and RNA, production of red blood cells, wound healing, building muscles, maintenance of the nervous system and for every function that requires cell division. It is especially important for a woman to take vitamin B9 before conception to help prevent neural tube defects in a fetus. Vitamin B9 can be obtained from green leafy vegetables, citrus fruits, liver, and yeast.

Vitamin B12 (Cyanocobalamin)

A water-soluble vitamin, part of the vitamin B complex. It is necessary for making red blood cells and DNA. A lack of vitamin B12 in the diet affects nearly all body tissues, with some of the most serious affects being on the nervous system. It is found in eggs, meat, poultry, shellfish, milk, and milk products.

Vitamin B Complex

Also called the B-group vitamins. A group of eight vitamins: thiamine (B1), riboflavin (B2), niacin (B3), pantothenic acid (B5), pyridoxine (B6), folic acid (B9), cyanocobalamin (B12), and biotin (H). These vitamins are essential for the breakdown of carbohydrates into glucose and for healthy state of skin, hair, eyes and liver.

Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid)

A water-soluble vitamin which helps maintain healthy bones, teeth, gums, ligaments, and blood vessels. It is also responsible for the immune system's response to infection. Found in fruits and vegetables, such as oranges, berries, tomatoes, and leafy greens.

Vitamin D (Calciferol)

A fat-soluble vitamin. Vitamin D is necessary for healthy bones and teeth, proper balance of calcium and phosphorus, and the production of new skin cells. It is formed in the skin under sunlight. Fortified milk, eggs and liver are also sources of vitamin D.

Vitamin E (Tocopherol)

A fat-soluble vitamin that protects cell membranes from damage. It also helps in the formation of red blood cells and in the utilization of vitamin K. It can be found in seeds, whole-grain products, egg yolk, and green leafy vegetables.

Vitamin H (Biotin)

A water-soluble vitamin, part of the vitamin B complex. Biotin helps with fat synthesis and breakdown. It is present in liver, egg yolk and legumes.

Vitamin K

A fat-soluble vitamin used in the body to control blood clotting. Vitamin K is found in nature in two forms: K1, also called phylloquinone, and K2, also called menaquinone. Vitamin K3, or menadione, is a man-made form of this vitamin. Vitamin K is found in leafy vegetables, cheese, liver, coffee, bacon, and green tea.


Chemical symbol Zn. A trace mineral that is important for many body functions such as immune resistance, wound healing, digestion, reproduction, physical growth, diabetes control, taste and smell sensations. Many enzymes in the human body require zinc for proper functioning. Zinc can be found in such foods as red meat, poultry and seafood.

Weight Loss Glossary, N-S
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